Shirye-shirye don yara: lokacin da za a fara, abin da za a koya

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Yaran yau sun fara amfani da kwamfuta da wuri. Suna kallon zane-zane, neman bayanai, hira da abokai. Suna kuma yin aikin gida da aikin gida. Don haka, dole ne a koya musu sadarwa da na’urorin lantarki. Amma me yasa daidai kuma yaushe za a fara yin shi?

A cikin azuzuwan kimiyyar kwamfuta, shekaru dubu sun fi koyon rubuta rubutu, sun kware Microsoft Windows (Basic at best) kuma sun buga Super Mario. A yau, kwamfutoci ga yara sun kasance na halitta kamar firiji. Ta yaya za ku taimaka wa yaronku ya sami kwanciyar hankali a duniyar dijital kuma ku sami mafi kyawun sabuntawar ta akai-akai? Bari mu gane shi.

3 - shekaru 5

Shekarun da suka dace don gabatar da yaro zuwa kwamfuta. Lokacin da suka kai shekaru uku, yara suna haɓaka ikon sarrafa tsoka a kan ingantattun dabarun motsa jiki na hannaye. A wasu kalmomi, sun riga sun iya lura da haɗin kai tsakanin maɓalli da sarrafa linzamin kwamfuta da canje-canje akan allon. A wannan shekarun, har ma suna iya sarrafa shirye-shirye masu sauƙi.

5 - shekaru 7

Yaran da suka tsufa a makarantar sakandare suna iya samun bayanai kawai daga kwarewar kansu, bayanai daga wasu mutane ba su da mahimmanci a gare su kuma galibi ba a la'akari da su azaman tushen gaskiya. Bugu da ƙari, har yanzu yara ba za su iya fahimtar bayanan mutum ɗaya ba, don haka suna rubutawa da karantawa a hankali (misali, shafi na littafi abu ne da ba za a iya raba su ba). Yana da wuya a gare su su gina hukunci da yanke hukunci.

Idan ka tambayi yaro abin da za a dinka riga daga: takarda, masana'anta, haushin Birch, polystyrene ko roba, zai zabi masana'anta, amma ba zai yiwu ya bayyana dalilin da ya sa ya amsa haka ba. A 5-7 shekaru, yaro ba zai iya ko da a koyar da tushen algorithmization (misali, rubuta wani algorithm don kirga magana y u2d 6a - (x + XNUMX) ko bayyana wani algorithm don yin aikin gida a cikin lissafi). Don haka, yana da kyau a fara koyan shirye-shiryen tun yana ɗan shekara takwas ba da wuri ba.

Shigar da yaronka a cikin kwas a cikin haɓaka harshen farko ko lissafin tunani. Kyakkyawan bayani zai kasance don mayar da hankali kan ƙwarewa mai laushi da haɓaka jagorar ƙirƙira: sassan wasanni, fasaha ko makarantar kiɗa.

8 - shekaru 9

A wannan shekarun, matakin girman kai ya faɗi, yaron ya riga ya shirya don gaskata hukunce-hukuncen malamin kuma ta haka fahimtar bayanai. Syncretism (sha'awar yaron don ɗaukar haɗin ra'ayi don haɗin abubuwa, alal misali, wata ba ta faɗi ba saboda yana kwance a cikin sama) kuma ya ɓace, kuma ya riga ya yiwu a fahimci yadda mafi sauki hanyoyin aiki.

Masanan ilimin kimiyya sun bambanta yankuna na kusanci da ci gaba na ainihi - basirar da aka kafa a cikin ayyukan haɗin gwiwa tare da sauran mutane. Abin da yaron zai iya yi da kansa (alal misali, saka tufafi masu sauƙi) ya riga ya kasance a cikin yanki na ainihin ci gaba. Idan har yanzu bai san yadda ake ɗaure igiyoyin takalminsa ba tare da tsokanar wani babba a kusa ba, to wannan fasaha har yanzu tana cikin yankin ci gaba na kusanci. A cikin aji, malami yana ƙirƙirar yankin ci gaba na kusanci.

Don haka yaron yana tasowa na gani-siffar tunani da tunani mai zurfi (lokacin da zai yiwu a yi bincike), ya koyi magance matsalolin don tunani a cikin hoto da kuma toshe nau'i. Don samun nasarar ƙwarewar shirye-shirye a wannan shekarun, kuna buƙatar ainihin ilimin lissafi na makaranta: ƙari, ragi, ninkawa da rarraba ta lambobi ɗaya da lambobi biyu tsakanin 10.

 

Hakanan kuna buƙatar samun damar magance matsalolin haɗin gwiwa. Misali: kyanwa Murka ta haifi kyanwa guda 8 (mai laushi 6 da ja 5). Kittens nawa aka haifa duka masu laushi da ja a lokaci guda? Bugu da ƙari, yara suna buƙatar ƙwarewar warware matsalolin ma'ana, kamar su zane-zane na zane-zane, sake sake sakewa, tattara algorithms masu sauƙi, da gano mafi guntu hanya.

10 - shekaru 11

A cikin maki 4-5, ban da yin algorithms na farko (alal misali, sanya alamar algorithm mai zuwa akan taswira No. 1: barin Ozersk, zuwa Okeansk), yaron ya koyi ƙa'idodin daidaitawa na yaren shirye-shirye, kuma ya fara aiki. tare da algorithms reshe, madaukai na gida, masu canji, da matakai.

Don yin wannan, kuna buƙatar haɓaka tunani mai ma'ana: aiki tare da masu yin wasan kwaikwayo daban-daban, shigar da lambar shirin kai tsaye da gina alaƙa da tasiri yayin warware matsalolin lissafi da ma'ana. Don haka, a matsayinmu na mai yin wasan kwaikwayo, za mu iya amfani da halin kwamfuta wanda zai iya yin ayyuka daban-daban a cikin duniyar kama-da-wane: tsalle, gudu, kunna, da sauransu.

 

A cikin ayyukan ilimi, ana buƙatar, alal misali, ya motsa akwati. Don yin wannan, yaron yana buƙatar shigar da umarni masu dacewa a cikin shirin a cikin wani tsari. Wannan yana haɓaka tunani mai ma'ana, yaron yana ganin yadda halayensa ke motsawa, kuma yana fahimtar lokacin da ya yi kuskure lokacin rubuta umarni a cikin shirin.

Yara da kansu suna jawo hankalin fasaha da duk wani sabon abu, don haka yana da mahimmanci ga iyaye su jagoranci wannan sha'awar zuwa hanya mai amfani. Shirye-shiryen yana da alama kawai yanki ne mai rikitarwa kuma ba za a iya isa ba, ƙarƙashin ƴan kaɗan kawai. Idan ka lura da abubuwan da yaron ke ciki a hankali kuma ka haɓaka basirarsa daidai, zai iya zama “haka mai hazaka na kwamfuta.”

 

Game da Developer

Sergey Shedov - wanda ya kafa da kuma darektan Moscow School of Programmers.

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